During the learning process it is important to pay attention to adaptive and defensive reaction. Adaptive reactions maintain students’ willingness to perform a task again. When defensive reactions are taken, students try to avoid performing the task again so as not to experiece renewed failure. When reacting in a defensive way, students are more likely to become apathetic, lose interest, delay their work until the last minute (procrastination) or wait to be helped by others instead of trying to solve a tas on their own (learned helplessness).
While reading the theory presented in the tMAIL application, I asked myself, as a teacher, how I could express the above to my students in a conscious way and by means of visualisation. Through Pinterest I came across 'the learning pit'. The learning pit shows that the rehearsal of certain subject matter is not just realized, but that you have to continue. According to the illustrator we speak of different phases: this is (too) difficult, I don't understand anything, I give up, I try again, someone can help me, I think I'm starting to understand!, it's good that I kept trying! and it works. In this way the learners are aware that it is normal that learning is a process.
As a learner, you always experience one of the phases throughout your school career. Learners in secondary and higher education are more aware of the success or failure of the processing process. For this reason, it is important to use nursery and primary education to acquire these competencies.